New Products Introducing the latest products from the worldwide leader in ammunition. Want more from Hornady? Sign up to receive new product announcements, special offers, and the annual product catalog.Ballistics Calculators and other resources. This value is not used unless the "Standard Conditions at Altitude" checkbox or the "Pressure is Corrected" checkbox is checked.
Chronograph Separation The distance from the point of the first velocity measurement to the point of the second measurement. This is the distance between the two chronographs.
Drag function A drag function or G function provides the forces on a standard bullet for which the drag function was derived. A bullet's ballistic coefficient then relates the drag on any bullet to that of the standard bullet. Far Velocity The velocity of the bullet at the end of the measured distance. Near Velocity The velocity of the bullet at the beginning of the measured distance.
Pressure The barometric pressure. It may be corrected or uncorrected depending on the state of the "Pressure is Corrected" checkbox. Pressure is Corrected Check this box if the pressure entered is a corrected station pressure. If it is an absolute pressure, leave this unchecked. The standard used is the ICAO standard atmosphere.
Temperature The measured or estimated air temperature. Output Data Ballistic Coefficient The calculated ballistic coefficient for the selected drag function. Atmospheric Density The calculated density of the air. Speed of Sound The calculated speed of sound. Time The calculated time of flight of the bullet over the entered distance.We are working on a massive list, but this list won't be ready for a few weeks or months. The Spitzer is a very popular and aerodynamic bullet shape.
This bullet is also called a spire point bullet by some people. The Spitzer has a BC modifier of 1. There are also spitzer boattails If your bullet look like a sptizer but has a boattail slanted end then choose the Boattail from the form above. The boattail is a modification to the rear end of a bullet making the projectile much more air resistent. It has a BC modifier of 1. The Boattail hollow point has a much lower BC modifier of somewhere around 1.
The boattail hollow point combines the airodynamics of the boattail with the expansion of the hollow point. It therefore has a lower BC modifier than the spitzer boattail, but a much higher modifier than the standard Hollow Point somewhere around 1. The hollow point has a small hollow cavity that expands to increase the surface area of the projectile on impact.
It's hard to see from the picture above, but easier to see in pistol rounds. It has a BC modifier of. The roundnose is a bullet that looks like it sounds It has a BC modifier of 1 and is the standard for our calculations.
It is slightly more aerodynamic than the hollow point but worse than the spitzer and boattails. People often get caught up in new fads and forget about the roundnose. It is a classic round that has no frills attached, and is reliable and stable. Complete Bullet Database. Original Articles. Join Our Mailing List.
Bullet Database. Random Guns Gallery. Spitzer [?Commonly used nowadays is the ballistic coefficient BC or G according to Karpov i.
Boris Karpov, US Army Research Laboratory,which represents not only the characteristics of the shape and the weight of the bullet, but also takes into account the actual air resistance at a specific velocity. To calculate the ballistic coefficient requires two velocities. The initial velocity V 0and then, at a certain point on the trajectory at the distance x from the muzzle, the V x velocity.
To measure V 0 directly is difficult; therefore V 5 and V were measured, from which V 0 was subsequently extrapolated. Similarly this is also applicable, of course, to other distances.
Calculating a Ballistic Coefficient (BC) from two velocities
The actual tests were carried out in such a manner that, using the same series of ammunition, first V 5 and subsequently V were shot from the same barrel. Since the shooting was not performed simultaneously, firing was repeated with other series and the uniformity of the results was monitored. BCs are calculated to three decimal places, which is in practice is completely satisfactory. Even after correcting for the atmospheric conditions and the altitude, the weight tolerance of the bullet and its initial velocity V 0 still come into play, and of course so does the length and the wear of the specific barrel.
Also the documentation provided by the Sierra Company can be accepted as being reliable. Ballistic coefficient calculation Commonly used nowadays is the ballistic coefficient BC or G according to Karpov i.In ballisticsthe ballistic coefficient BC of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
The formula for calculating the ballistic coefficient for small and large arms projectiles only is as follows:. This formula is for calculating the ballistic coefficient within the small arms shooting community, but is redundant with BC Projectile :.
Ballistic coefficient calculation
His conclusion was near 45 degrees. He noted that the shot trajectory was continuously curved. He found that a falling body had a constant acceleration. This allowed Galileo to show that a bullet's trajectory was a curve. CircaSir Isaac Newton derived the law of air resistance.
Newton's experiments on drag were through air and fluids. He showed that drag on shot increases proportionately with the density of the air or the fluidcross sectional area, and the square of the speed. InJohn Keill challenged the Continental Mathematica, "To find the curve that a projectile may describe in the air, on behalf of the simplest assumption of gravityand the density of the medium uniform, on the other hand, in the duplicate ratio of the velocity of the resistance".
This challenge supposes that air resistance increases exponentially to the velocity of a projectile. Johann Bernoulli [ clarification needed The Bernouilli equation is credited to Jacob Bernouilli ] took up this challenge and soon thereafter solved the problem and air resistance varied as "any power" [ verification needed ] of velocity; [ clarification needed It is said above that air resistance was supposed to increase exponentially with velocity.
InBenjamin Robins invented the ballistic pendulum.
This was a simple mechanical device that could measure a projectile's velocity. In his book published that same year "New Principles of Gunnery", he uses numerical integration from Euler's method and found that air resistance varies as the square of the velocity, but insisted that it changes at the speed of sound.
InLeonhard Euler showed how a theoretical trajectories might be calculated using his method as applied to the Bernoulli equation, but only for resistance varying as the square of the velocity.
Inthe Electro-ballistic chronograph was invented and by the electro-ballistic chronograph was accurate to within one ten millionth of a second. Many countries and their militaries carried out test firings from the mid eighteenth century on using large ordnance to determine the drag characteristics of each individual projectile. These individual test firings were logged and reported in extensive ballistics tables. Mayevski, then a Colonel — at St.Firearm Science: Bullet Trajectory
Many militaries up until the s used calculus to compute projectile trajectory. The numerical computations necessary to calculate just a single trajectory was lengthy, tedious and done by hand.
So, investigations to develop a theoretical drag model began. The investigations led to a major simplification in the experimental treatment of drag. This was the concept of a "standard projectile". The ballistic tables are made up for a factitious projectile being defined as: "a factitious weight and with a specific shape and specific dimensions in a ratio of calibers.
InBashforth publishes a report containing his ballistic tables. Bashforth uses b as the variable for ballistic coefficient.Chantaedennis I really like this.
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